E-ISSN 2548-0839
European Endodontic Journal - Eur Endod J: 6 (1)
Volume: 6  Issue: 1 - 2021
EDITORIALS
1.Editorial: European Endodontic Journal – More Indexations and Appreciation to Editors and Reviewers
Ismail Davut Çapar, Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed
PMID: 33776022  doi: 10.14744/eej.2021.1  Pages 1 - 2
Abstract | Full Text PDF

REVIEW ARTICLES
2.Effect of Rotary and Reciprocating Instrumentation Motions on Postoperative Pain Incidence in Non-Surgical Endodontic Treatments: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Behnam Rahbani Nobar, Omid Dianat, Behrad Rahbani Nobar, Armin Shirvani, Nazanin Zargar, Majid Kazem, Patricia Tordik
PMID: 33609019  PMCID: PMC8056811  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.51523  Pages 3 - 14
Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine whether there are postoperative pain differences resulting from rotary and reciprocation engine-driven instrumentation motions in non-surgical endodontic treatment or retreatment at 12, 24, and 48 hours.
Methods: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus) were searched to identify randomised controlled trials that compared the effects of rotary and reciprocating instrumentation motions on postoperative pain. Two authors independently screened the search results, extracted the data, and assessed the quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Due to numerous variables across studies, the random effect inverse variance method for meta-analysis was applied. When significant heterogeneity among studies was present, the random effects multi-variable meta-regression analysis was performed to determine the source of heterogeneity.
Results: At all time intervals, the incidence of postoperative pain was higher in the reciprocating instrumentation group, but was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the analgesic intake between groups. Meta-regression analysis determined study population sizes as a significant heterogeneous factor, while significance was not observed for preoperative pain or the pulpal diagnosis.
Conclusion: There was no difference in postoperative pain at 12, 24, and 48 hours after non-surgical root canal treatment and retreatment, using reciprocating or rotary instrumentation motions. (EEJ-2020-07-173)

3.Medications Used for Prevention and Treatment of Postoperative Endodontic Pain: A Systematic Review
Manuela Santini, Ricardo Abreu Da Rosa, Maria Beatriz Ferreira, Fernando Barletta, Angela Longo do Nascimento, Theodoro Weissheimer, Carlos Estrela, Marcus Vinicius So
PMID: 33609020  PMCID: PMC8056801  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.85856  Pages 15 - 24
Objective: Prevention and management of postoperative endodontic pain is a common challenge for the endodontists. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medicament therapeutic protocols in the prevention and management of endodontic pain.
Methods: A literature search was undertaken in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, LILACs, and SciELO, for articles published until December 2017, without year restriction and written only in English. An additional search was performed in the references of the retrieved studies.
Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions: The inclusion criteria were randomised clinical trials that evaluated the use of medications to prevent or control moderate to severe pain in adult patients, using a visual analog scale as a tool for pain measurement. The primary outcome evaluated was the reduction of pain scores. The second outcome evaluated was the need for additional analgesia and the occurrence of adverse events.
Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The quality assessment of the included studies was performed following the Jadad scale to measure the likelihood of bias in pain research reports.
Results: After removing duplicates and excluding the studies that did not meet the selection criteria, ten studies were included tin the systematic review. Among these studies, five studies administered the medications before the endodontic procedures and five studies after. These studies evaluated non-opioid analgesics (acetaminophen), opioid analgesics (tramadol and codeine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, ketorolac tromethamine, etodolac, tenoxicam, and naproxen), steroidal anti-inflammatory (prednisolone) or the association of medications to prevent or control postoperative pain. It was possible to establish a significant relationship between the use of additional analgesics and periapical diagnosis. Adverse events were not observed when the administration occurred before the endodontic procedure. When it was administered after the procedure, adverse reactions were reported in 2 of 3 trials included in the analysis.
Limitations: A restricted number of randomised clinical trials were found, and the difference in the methodology of the studies did not meet the definition of a systemic treatment protocol for prevention or control of postoperative pain.
Conclusion: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most common medicament to prevent and control postoperative pain, with ibuprofen being the most investigated. There is a significant association between the use of additional analgesics and periapical diagnoses. (EEJ-2020-06-155)

4.Diagnosis and Management of Apical Fenestrations Associated with Endodontic Diseases: A Literature Review
Jasmine Wong, Angeline Lee, Chengfei Zhang
PMID: 33609018  PMCID: PMC8056804  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.51422  Pages 25 - 33
Apical fenestration describes a window-like opening of the alveolar bone that involves the root apex of the associated tooth. Mucosal fenestration is a similar defect of the overlying mucosa and, when presented with a concomitant apical fenestration, may expose the root apex to the oral environment. A fenestration may arise from physiological and pathological processes. Although its presence does not necessitate treatment per se, these lesions have significant clinical implications when associated with endodontic diseases. Apical fenestrations associated with endodontic infections are relatively uncommon and can easily be overlooked or misdiagnosed. A thorough understanding of these lesions is key for timely diagnosis and successful management. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiology, aetiological factors, characteristics, management methods and potential outcomes of apical fenestrations associated with endodontic diseases. A search of online databases for relevant studies was conducted. With the inclusion of hand searched articles, 20 articles, consisting of case reports and series, were identified, and the key characteristics of each case were summarised. Apical fenestrations were found to be most commonly associated with maxillary teeth and almost always occur on the buccal aspect of the alveolar bone. Clinicians may consider the possibility of an apical fenestration with concurrent endodontic pathology when patients present with non-healing sinus tracts, exposed tooth apices and/or persistent pain after endodontic treatment, particularly on palpation and mastication. Clinical signs and symptoms can vary, hence cone-beam computed tomography is an important tool for diagnosis. The management involves surgically restoring a favourable anatomical configuration of the root apex in relation to the alveolar bony housing and may be combined with guided tissue regeneration and/or grafting procedures. Sloughing, reopening and infection are potential complications. The literature on apical fenestrations associated with endodontic diseases is limited, thus further research is needed to develop evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of these lesions. (EEJ-2020-08-213)

ORIGINAL ARTICLES
5.Postoperative Pain After the use of Sodium Hypochlorite gel and Solution Forms: A Randomized Clinical Study
Ertugrul Karatas, Damla Ozsu Kirici, Hakan Arslan
PMID: 33531449  PMCID: PMC8056817  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.08370  Pages 34 - 37
Objective: The present study aimed to compare the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) gel and solution forms on postoperative pain level.
Methods: Fifty-two patients were divided into two groups according to the root canal irrigation solution. In the NaOCl solution group, the root canals were irrigated with 2 mL of 5.25% NaOCl between each pecking motion. In the NaOCl gel group, 5.25% NaOCl gel was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The root canal treatments were completed and the participants were given instructions to record postoperative pain levels on 24, 48, and 72 hours and 1 week after treatment using VAS.
Results: Intergroup analyses revealed that the NaOCl gel group resulted in significantly less postoperative pain than the NaOCl solution group on day 1.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that using NaOCl gel during root canal preparation results in less postoperative on day 1 when compared with the NaOCl solution. (EEJ-2020-06-158)

6.Comparison of Two Different Methods in the Removal of Oil-Based Calcium Hydroxide From Root Canal System: A Triple-Blinded Randomised Clinical Trial
Momina Anis Motiwala, Sheikh Bilal Badar, Robia Ghafoor
PMID: 33907070  PMCID: PMC805680  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.78941  Pages 38 - 43
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of rotary master apical file (RMAF) with ultrasonic activation of endodontic file (UAF) in the removal of silicon oil-based calcium hydroxide (SOBCH) from the canal.
Methods: Ethical review committee approval and informed consent was obtained. 60 cases with necrotic teeth in which silicon oil-based intracanal medicament (Metapex) was to be placed were randomised in one of the two groups using sealed envelopes containing assignment codes for medicament removal: RMAF and UAF group. After standard protocol of coronal access, cleaning and shaping, silicon oil-based SOBCH was placed using a Lentulo spiral. A periapical radiograph was taken after SOBCH placement to check for adequate adaptation. On 7th day, after instrumentation and medicament removal according to respective group, a second radiograph was taken to evaluate the effectiveness. Effectiveness was calculated using a graded scale in which 0 and 1 are effective and 2 and 3 are ineffective cleaning. Teeth were statistically analyzed using the Mann Whitney U and Chi-square test.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the removal effectiveness of group RMAF and Group UAF at coronal (P=0.74) middle (P=0.71) and apical third (P=0.68). According to the graded score both techniques were equally effective in cleaning at all thirds of canal (RMAF=Apical: 1.09±0.70, Middle: 0.61±0.80, Coronal: 0.33±0.48 and UAC=Apical: 1.00±0.77, Middle: 0.52±0.74, Coronal: 0.28±0.46). Effectiveness of SOBCH removal using the two methods was not statistically significant between maxillary and mandibular teeth (P=0.35).
Conclusion: Both the removal methods, Ultrasonic activation of file and Rotary master apical file, for SOBCH were equally effective in all the thirds of canal. And none of the techniques were able to completely remove the SOBCH. Effectiveness of SOBCH removal using the two methods was not statistically different between maxillary and mandibular teeth. (EEJ-2020-07-183)

7.The Apical Extent of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Apical Barrier Does not Influence the Treatment Outcome in a Nonvital Immature Permanent Anterior Tooth: A Split-Mouth Clinical Study
Krunal Tabiyar, Ajay Logani
PMID: 33609017  PMCID: PMC8056805  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.08760  Pages 44 - 49
Objective: The study aimed to compare treatment outcomes when MTA apical plugs are placed to different apical extents in nonvital immature permanent anterior teeth with an open apex.
Methods: Six participants (five male & one female) between the age group of 8-18 years exhibiting bilateral traumatized nonvital immature permanent maxillary anterior teeth (n=12) with non-blunderbuss canal (Cvek's stage 4) were included. Standardized endodontic procedures were performed, and an inter-appointment calcium hydroxide medicament placed for one week. Based on the apical position of the MTA apical barrier, two study groups were defined. Accordingly, Group I {(n=6) (4mm MTA plug up to the radiographic root end)} and Group II {(n=6) (4 mm MTA plug 2 mm short of the radiographic root-end)}. Teeth were obturated after twenty-four hours with thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique. They were evaluated clinically and radiographically at 12 and 24 months. Radiographs were assessed for periapical healing based on the periapical index (PAI) scores that were dichotomized as score <3 as healed and ≥3 as not healed. The data were compared using Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis and post hoc analysis.
Results: At 24 months, all teeth in Group I and II were healed clinically and radiographically. On inter-group comparison, radiographically, all teeth (n=12) exhibited a PAI score <3 and were categorized as healed (P=1.00).
Conclusion: The apical extent of MTA plug does not influence the treatment outcome. The clinician can place MTA apical plug either up to or 2 mm short of the radiographic root-end. (EEJ-2020-04-091)

8.Quantitative Analysis of Candidate Endodontic Pathogens and Their Association with Cause and Symptoms of Apical Periodontitis in a Sudanese Population
Salma Abushouk, Fionnuala Lundy, Gerry Linden, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Yahia Ibrahim, Ikhlas El Karim
PMID: 33762533  PMCID: PMC8056810  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.52297  Pages 50 - 55
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of key endodontic pathogens and their association with the clinical features and the cause of apical periodontitis.
Methods: The study population included patients referred to Khartoum Dental teaching Hospital, Sudan for endodontic treatment. Samples were collected from single-rooted teeth carious or traumatised teeth with clinical and radiographic evidence of apical periodontitis. The endodontic pathogens Porphyromonas endodontalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Treponema denticola were quantified by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The prevalence of each species was identified at both a low detection threshold (>50 bacteria) and a high detection threshold (>1000 bacteria).
Results: 75 patients (mean age 30.1 yrs SD 10.1) were included in the analysis. The most prevalent bacterium at both the low and high threshold was F. nucleatum followed by T. denticola at the low threshold and P. endodontalis at the high threshold. There was no association with symptoms at the low detection threshold, but at high threshold P. endodontalis was associated with swelling, adjusted odds ratio (OR), 9.32 95%CI 1.11- 78.66, P=0.04. All species were more prevalent in apical periodontitis due to caries only at the low detection threshold, OR=5.01 (P=0.006) for T. denticola; 4.84 (P=0.01) for F. nucleatum; and 3.62 (P=0.03) for P. endodontalis.
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of the F. nucleatum, T. denticola and P. endodontalis in apical periodontitis associated with caries. None of these bacterial were associated with pain but the presence of P. endodontalis at high levels was associated with swelling. (EEJ-2020-07-177)

9.Prevalence of Lateral Radiolucency, Apical Root Resorption and Periapical Lesions in Portuguese Patients: A CBCT Cross-Sectional Study with a Worldwide Overview
João Meirinhos, Jorge Martins, Beatriz Pereira, Abayomi Baruwa, António Ginjeira
PMID: 33762535  PMCID: PMC8056814  doi: 10.14744/eej.2021.29981  Pages 56 - 71
Objective: Apical periodontitis develops when bacteria, or their by products, migrate from the infected root canal system space to the surrounding apical tissues. The objective of the present multi-center cross-sectional study was to analyze the prevalence of lateral radiolucency, apical root resorption and periapical lesions in 7 districts of Portugal using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) assessment.
Methods: A total of 1,249 CBCT scans, from 11 dental clinics, were screened. Data regarding 22,899 teeth was included. For each tooth the recorded data was the presence of lateral radiolucency, apical root resorption, periapical lesions, previous root canal treatment, missed root canals, length of root canal filling (short, good or overfilling) and type of coronal restoration (intact tooth, non-restored, filling or crown). Differences between districts were tested using chi-squared. A P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The proportion of lateral radiolucency ranged between 0.0% (Aveiro, Braga and Coimbra) and 0.9% (Lisbon), while the prevalence of apical root resorption ranged from 0.0% (Braga and Coimbra) to 3.0% in Setubal. The nationwide proportion of lateral radiolucency was 0.4%, while for apical root resorption was 1.1%. The prevalence of periapical lesions varied from 4.1% (Braga) and 13.0% (Lisbon) with a nationwide proportion of 10.0%. Significant differences were noted between districts (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of lateral radiolucency and apical root resorption were low in all districts. Root canal filled teeth were associated with higher periapical lesions proportions than non-treated teeth. Independently of the assessed district, the periapical status may be influenced by both quality of the endodontic treatment and coronal restoration. (EEJ-2020-08-215)

10.Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Second Molars in a Yemeni Population: A Cone-beam Computed Tomography
Elham Senan, Hatem Alhadainy, Ahmed A. Madfa
PMID: 33531451  PMCID: PMC8056815  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.94695  Pages 72 - 81
Objective: This study aimed to identify and characterize root and canal morphology and the prevalence of C-shaped canals of mandibular second molars (MSMs) in a Yemeni population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Methods: Three-dimensional digital images of 500 MSMs with mature roots were taken from 250 Yemeni individuals and analyzed for the following features: number of roots, shape and type of roots, type of canal configuration in each root, prevalence of C-shaped canal, and primary variations in the morphology of root and canal systems. Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests were employed for statistical analysis.
Results: 89.6% of MSMs had two separate roots, 9% had two fused roots, 0.6% had three separate roots and 0.8% had one root. Mesial root was mostly ribbon-shaped (60.5%) and distal root was mostly kidney-shaped (50.7%). Type II and Type I canal configurations were the most frequent in mesial (56.9%) and distal (91.3%) roots, respectively. C-shaped canals were found in 9%. Six variants were found with variant 3 being the most common (71%).
Conclusion: Yemeni MSMs are mainly two-rooted. The prevalence of three- and one-rooted MSMs was relatively low. Various canals configurations were found in MSMs among this sample of Yemeni population. The clinicians should consider C-shaped roots and canals when treating Yemeni MSMs and should be aware of their morphological variations to ensure successful root canal treatment. Although bilateral similarity of many anatomical features of MSMs was found, individual evaluation of each MSM is necessary while performing endodontic treatment on both sides. (EEJ-2019-10-109)

11.Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Nano Triple Antibiotic Paste with Nano Anti-Inflammatory Drug as an Intracanal Medicament
Yousra Nashaat, Hadil Sabry, Soha Ahmed Hassan
PMID: 33762529  PMCID: PMC8056808  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.29292  Pages 82 - 89
Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the cytotoxicity of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with an anti-inflammatory drug (TAP+Catafast-TAPC) in nano and regular formulations versus calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicaments.
Methods: The TAPC drugs extraction were made in cell culture media MEM-E (Eagle's minimal essential medium) using concentration of 10 mg/mL of each sample for seven days. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) were determined for each extract. A human fibroblasts cell line was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of different concentrations (10, 0.625 and 0.07 mg/mL) using MTT essay. The cell viability was measured after 24 h, 48 h and 7 days for all concentrations of the drugs. Flow cytometry analysis was carried out to identify the effect of materials on apoptosis/necrosis. Statistical analysis for the obtained results was done by one-way ANOVA.
Results: The results revealed that cell viability was inversely proportional to the duration of treatment in all of the groups. Calcium hydroxide (Control group) demonstrated a significantly greater cytotoxic effect, followed by Nano Triple Antibiotic Paste with Catafast as an anti-inflamatory drug (Nano TAPC), while Triple Antibiotic Paste with Catafast (TAPC) had the least cytotoxic effect. Nano TAPC has the greatest apoptotic value, while TAPC had the least when compared with the reference group, with no significant difference between groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of Nano TAPC was lower than that of calcium hydroxide and higher than that of TAPC. Although Nano TAPC has the highest apoptotic value when compared to TAPC and calcium hydroxide but still there is no statistically significant difference between them. (EEJ-2020-09-222)

12.In-Depth Metallurgical and Microstructural Analysis of Oneshape and Heat Treated Onecurve Instruments
Arash Azizi, Carlo Prati, Riccardo Schiavon, Raquel Michelle Fitzgibbon, Chiara Pirani, Francesco Iacono, Gian Andrea Pelliccioni, Andrea Spinelli, Fausto Zamparini, Pietro Puddu, Giovanni Bolelli, Luigi Generali
PMID: 33762534  PMCID: PMC8056813  doi: 10.14744/eej.2021.63634  Pages 90 - 97
Objective: To define surface, mechanical, microstructural and metallurgical features of conventional OneShape (OShape) and heat-treated OneCurve (OCurve) nickel-titanium instruments.
Methods: Instruments were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on new instruments and after simulated clinical use (SCU). Cyclic fatigue testing was performed and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) and the length of the fractured instruments were measured (Mann-Whitney test). Fractured instruments during cyclic fatigue testing were then inspected by SEM fractographic analysis. Field emission gun scanning scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used to assess alloy surface chemistry. Focused ion beam (FIB) was performed to analyse the oxide layer on the surface of OCurve before and after SCU. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), metallographic evaluation and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine martensitic/austenitic phase transformation temperatures.
Results: SEM observations on new instruments revealed a smooth regular surface with flattened milling grooves. No wear features were detected after SCU. OCurve exhibited a higher cyclic fatigue resistance (P<0.05), slower crack propagation and a surface layer of TiO2. Metallographic analysis and XRD showed the prevalence of martensitic grains on OCurve instruments that were stable at body temperature as confirmed by DSC analysis. Furthermore, DSC demonstrated a shift in the temperature transformation ranges suggesting an increase of martensite phase in autoclaved OCurve instruments.
Conclusion: Heat treatment processes were confirmed as a valid enhancement of the properties of the new generation NiTi instruments. OCurve presented a significant improvement over OShape regarding both mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. (EEJ-2020-09-220)

13.The Structural, Physical, and In Vitro Biological Performance of Freshly Mixed and Set Endodontic Sealers
Muhammad Talal Khan, Faisal Moeen, Sher Zaman Safi, Farrukh Said, Afsheen Mansoor, Abdul Khan
PMID: 33762530  PMCID: PMC8056812  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.36349  Pages 98 - 109
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro performance of endodontic sealers in their freshly mixed and set forms.
Methods: The commercially used endodontic sealers (AH Plus, Dia-ProSeal, GuttaFlow 2, and Pulpdent Root Canal Sealer) were investigated and the chemical structure of freshly mixed and set sealers were assessed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology and elemental analysis were assessed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The pH and solubility analysis were performed and the cytotoxicity was done on extracts of freshly mixed and set materials using Alamar blue assay. One way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey analysis was used to do multiple comparison analysis of the mean values and standard deviation results through SPSS version 20 (IBM Software, NY, USA) for pH, solubility, and cytotoxicity analysis.
Results: FTIR analysis revealed the structural pattern and the difference in freshly mixed and set samples was observed with the change in intensities of the peaks. The morphological pattern revealed the presence of micro/nano-particles with pores distributed throughout their structure. The sealer with the least solubility was AH Plus (0.10±0.01) followed by Dia-ProSeal (0.77±0.25), GuttaFlow 2 (1.88±0.82) and Pulpdent Root Canal Sealer (3.03±0.18). The solubility of AH plus was significantly lower (P<0.05) in comparison to GuttaFlow 2 and Pulpdent Root Canal Sealer. The highest pH (10.09±0.034) in the freshly mixed state and highest cytotoxicity in the freshly mixed (70.08±5.852) and set sealers (83.87±5.409) (P<0.05) at day 7 was observed in Dia-ProSeal. GuttaFlow 2 was the most biocompatible sealer in the set state and AH Plus was the most biocompatible sealer in the freshly mixed state at day 7.
Conclusion: Clinically, the sealer is applied in fresh state, whereby this study signifies that which material is more biocompatible in fresh state and provides insight information to clinicians. AH Plus showed least solubility and cytocompatibility in fresh state compared to other groups. (EEJ-2020-06-153)

14.Bacterial Reduction in Oval-Shaped Root Canals After Different Irrigant Agitation Methods
Luciana Nogueira, Georgiana Amaral, Emmanuel Silva, Justine Tinoco, Flávio Alves, Luciana M Sassone
PMID: 33762531  PMCID: PMC8056816  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.42204  Pages 110 - 116
Objective: This study aimed to assess the antibacterial effect of Easy Clean®, passive ultrasonic irrigation and sonic irrigation against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in oval-shaped canals.
Methods: Fifty-five extracted human teeth with similar dimensions were selected. Access cavities were prepared and the root canals were instrumented using Wave One® Primary files (25.08). The root canals were then contaminated with an E. faecalis suspension following incubation for thirty days. The contaminated roots were divided into three experimental groups (n=15) according to the irrigant agitation protocol (Easy Clean, passive ultrassonic irrigation and sonic irrigation), in addition to a positive control group (n=5) and a negative control group (n=5). Microbiological samples were taken from the root canals before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after the final irrigation protocol (S3). The samples were assayed and incubated for 48 hours in order to obtain the residual titer of E. faecalis cells. Viable cells were quantified by colony-forming units (CFU) measurement. The collected data was submitted to statistical analysis by using Shapiro-Wilk`s test, Wilcoxon paired test, Kruskal–Wallis test and Dunn's post-hoc test. The level of significance was set at 5%.
Results: All experimental groups presented significant reduction on bacterial load after instrumentation (P<0.05) with similar reduction among the groups. After the agitation protocols, significant reduction in bacterial load was demonstrated for all groups (P<0.05). However, no differences were shown among Easy Clean®, PUI and SI (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that all tested groups exhibited similar disinfection effectiveness. However, none of them was able to render all root canals free from microorganisms. (EEJ-2020-06-128)

15.Influence of Lignocaine Hydrochloride with Adrenaline on Free Active Chlorine Content of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution Admixed in Various Proportions
Ishwarya Gurucharan, Charanya Chandrasekaran, Balasubramanian Saravanakarthikeyan, Sekar Mahalaxmi
PMID: 33531450  PMCID: PMC8056803  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.52523  Pages 117 - 121
Objective: Local anaesthetic solution that is commonly employed for supplemental intrapulpal injection (IPI) may routinely come in contact with subsequently used sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during endodontic treatment of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis cases. This in vitro study investigated the available free active chlorine (FAC) content of 3% NaOCl after mixing with 2% lignocaine hydrochloride with adrenaline (LA) solution in three different proportions using iodometric titration analysis.
Methods: Aliquots of 3% NaOCl (control) in different measures (30 mL, 27 mL, 21 mL and 15 mL) served as the effective concentrate of various proportions of NaOCl admixed with the test solutions, i.e., demineralised water (DM) and LA. The mixed aliquots containing NaOCl-DM and NaOCl-LA combination solutions admixed in various proportions (9: 1, 7: 3 and 1: 1 w/v) respectively served as the experimental groups. Iodometric titration was performed to determine the FAC of each independent solution.The results were then evaluated using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc analysis to determine the differences between various groups and amongst the individual admixtures. The level of significance was set at P<0.05.
Results: Inter-group comparisons revealed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between all the test groups. An intra-group analysis revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in group 2, whereas no differences (P>0.05) were observed in group 3. Further, there was a dose dependent reduction in FAC content in both the experimental groups with lowest FAC values were observed in 1: 1 solution admixtures followed by 7: 3 and 9: 1 proportions.
Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in NaOCl FAC content when admixed with lignocaine HCl even in small proportions. Hence, adequate measures should be taken to remove the residual LA from the pulpal space, before the use of NaOCl after IPI administration. (EEJ-2020-05-092)

16.Ion Release From Prototype Surface Pre-Reacted Glass Ionomer Sealer and EndoSequence BC Sealer
Aparna Bhat, Nicholas Cvach, Cassia Mizuno, Chul Ahn, Qiang Zhu, Carolyn Primus, Takashi Komabayashi
PMID: 33762532  PMCID: PMC8056809  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.50470  Pages 122 - 127
Objective: Bioactive ions, when incorporated in an endodontic sealer, can contribute to the long-term success of endodontic therapy by combating the re-infection of a tooth and promoting the healing of the periapical bone. The objective of this study was to measure the release of boron, strontium, and silicon ions from surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler containing prototype endodontic sealer over a sustained period in comparison to EndoSequence BC sealer in a simulated clinical model using extracted human teeth in vitro.
Methods: Twelve extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Johnson City, TN, USA) files up to size X3 (#30/variable taper) with copious 2.5% NaOCl irrigation. Teeth were obturated using a single-cone technique with a matching size tapered gutta-percha point and one of two endodontic sealers: prototype S-PRG (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) or EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA, USA). The teeth were soaked in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution for 336 hours. Periodically, 1-mL samples of the PBS were analyzed via an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to determine the concentrations of ions released by the sealers.
Results: The average (S.D.) cumulative release (ng/ml) of boron, silicon, and strontium ions over 2 weeks for the prototype S-PRG sealer was 8614.9 (1264.3), 35758.9 (5986.5), and 3965.2 (145.6), and for EndoSequence BC sealer was 1860.5 (82.7), 164648.7 (16468.1), and 227.7 (4.7). Generalized linear mixed model analysis showed significant differences in ion concentration among boron, silicon, and strontium over time between the two sealer groups (Boron: P<0.0001, Silicon: P=0.010, Strontium: P=0.028). Of the three ions, strontium had the lowest amount of release for both sealers. The prototype S-PRG sealer showed a rapid initial burst followed by a slow, continuous release of strontium ions.
Conclusion: The prototype S-PRG sealer released boron and strontium ions in higher cumulative concentrations over 2 weeks compared to the EndoSequence BC sealer. Both the prototype S-PRG and EndoSequence BC sealers released silicon ions, although significantly more were eluted from the EndoSequence BC sealer. Antimicrobial and osteogenic ion release from sealers is expected to positively influence the post-treatment control of microbial infections to improve periapical healing. (EEJ-2020-05-108)

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
17.Importance of “Time” on “Haemostasis” in Vital Pulp Therapy
Saeed Asgary, Ardavan Parhizkar
PMID: 33776024  PMCID: PMC8056802  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.82574  Pages 128 - 129
EEJ-2020-05-118

18.The Role of Vital Pulp Therapy in the Management of Periapical Lesions
Saeed Asgary, Ardavan Parhizkar
PMID: 33776023  PMCID: PMC8056806  doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.04706  Pages 130 - 131
EEJ-2020-08-208

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