Objective: Apical periodontitis develops when bacteria, or their by products, migrate from the infected root canal system space to the surrounding apical tissues. The objective of the present multi-center cross-sectional study was to analyze the prevalence of lateral radiolucency, apical root resorption and periapical lesions in 7 districts of Portugal using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) assessment.
Methods: A total of 1,249 CBCT scans, from 11 dental clinics, were screened. Data regarding 22,899 teeth was included. For each tooth the recorded data was the presence of lateral radiolucency, apical root resorption, periapical lesions, previous root canal treatment, missed root canals, length of root canal filling (short, good or overfilling) and type of coronal restoration (intact tooth, non-restored, filling or crown). Differences between districts were tested using chi-squared. A P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The proportion of lateral radiolucency ranged between 0.0% (Aveiro, Braga and Coimbra) and 0.9% (Lisbon), while the prevalence of apical root resorption ranged from 0.0% (Braga and Coimbra) to 3.0% in Setubal. The nationwide proportion of lateral radiolucency was 0.4%, while for apical root resorption was 1.1%. The prevalence of periapical lesions varied from 4.1% (Braga) and 13.0% (Lisbon) with a nationwide proportion of 10.0%. Significant differences were noted between districts (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of lateral radiolucency and apical root resorption were low in all districts. Root canal filled teeth were associated with higher periapical lesions proportions than non-treated teeth. Independently of the assessed district, the periapical status may be influenced by both quality of the endodontic treatment and coronal restoration. (EEJ-2020-08-215)