Objective: Bioactive ions, when incorporated in an endodontic sealer, can contribute to the long-term success of endodontic therapy by combating the re-infection of a tooth and promoting the healing of the periapical bone. The objective of this study was to measure the release of boron, strontium, and silicon ions from surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler containing prototype endodontic sealer over a sustained period in comparison to EndoSequence BC sealer in a simulated clinical model using extracted human teeth in vitro.
Methods: Twelve extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Johnson City, TN, USA) files up to size X3 (#30/variable taper) with copious 2.5% NaOCl irrigation. Teeth were obturated using a single-cone technique with a matching size tapered gutta-percha point and one of two endodontic sealers: prototype S-PRG (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) or EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA, USA). The teeth were soaked in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution for 336 hours. Periodically, 1-mL samples of the PBS were analyzed via an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to determine the concentrations of ions released by the sealers.
Results: The average (S.D.) cumulative release (ng/ml) of boron, silicon, and strontium ions over 2 weeks for the prototype S-PRG sealer was 8614.9 (1264.3), 35758.9 (5986.5), and 3965.2 (145.6), and for EndoSequence BC sealer was 1860.5 (82.7), 164648.7 (16468.1), and 227.7 (4.7). Generalized linear mixed model analysis showed significant differences in ion concentration among boron, silicon, and strontium over time between the two sealer groups (Boron: P<0.0001, Silicon: P=0.010, Strontium: P=0.028). Of the three ions, strontium had the lowest amount of release for both sealers. The prototype S-PRG sealer showed a rapid initial burst followed by a slow, continuous release of strontium ions.
Conclusion: The prototype S-PRG sealer released boron and strontium ions in higher cumulative concentrations over 2 weeks compared to the EndoSequence BC sealer. Both the prototype S-PRG and EndoSequence BC sealers released silicon ions, although significantly more were eluted from the EndoSequence BC sealer. Antimicrobial and osteogenic ion release from sealers is expected to positively influence the post-treatment control of microbial infections to improve periapical healing. (EEJ-2020-05-108)