Objective: This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and biomodulatory potential of conventional gutta-percha (CGP) points, gutta-percha points containing bioceramics (BC), and CPoint polymer (CP) points on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro.
Methods: PDL fibroblasts were cultured and stimulated with extracts of CGP, BC, and CP in serial dilutions to evaluate cell viability using MTT assay. Next, the 1: 5 dilution was used to stimulate the cells for 72 h to assess the gene expression of type I collagen (COL-1) and cement protein 1 (CEMP-1), by reverse transcription followed by quantitative PCR. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (P<0.05).
Results: Pure extracts of CGP and CP were found to be cytotoxic for PDL (P<0.01). Once diluted to 1: 5, only CP showed cytotoxicity. BC did not affect cell viability in any extract sample. No extract significantly altered the gene expression of COL-1. For CEMP-1, a significant increase in gene expression was observed only for CGP (P<0.05).
Conclusion: CP was found to be more cytotoxic than CGP, while BC demonstrated no cytotoxicity. The tested cones did not affect COL-1 gene expression, while CGP upregulated CEMP-1. Our results suggest that obturation point components may affect the biological responses of PDL fibroblasts.