E-ISSN 2548-0839
European Endodontic Journal Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Mangosteen, Triphala, Chitosan, and 2% Chlorhexidine on Mono- and Dual-Species Biofilms of – and Candida albicans: An in Vitro Study [Eur Endod J]
Eur Endod J. 2022; 7(1): 58-66 | DOI: 10.14744/eej.2021.70783

Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Mangosteen, Triphala, Chitosan, and 2% Chlorhexidine on Mono- and Dual-Species Biofilms of – and Candida albicans: An in Vitro Study

Vinoo Subramanaiam Ramachandran1, Mensudar Rathakrishnan2, Malathy Balaraman Ravindrran3, Venkatesh Alagarsamy2
1Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Bharath Institute of Higher Training and Research, Tamilnadu, India
2Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Tamilnadu, India
3Department of Microbiology, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospital, Tamilnadu, India

Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of 2% chlorhexidine gel, 0.5% chitosan, ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp, and Triphala used as intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in mono- and dual-species biofilms.
Methods: Bioactive components in the ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp and Triphala were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Quantitative assessment of the biofilm formations of E. faecalis and C. albicans and as a dual-species in the presence of test medicaments was carried out using a crystal violet (CV) assay in a microtiter plate. Following this, 246 single-rooted premolar teeth were collected, and root specimens were prepared. C. albicans and E. faecalis mono- and dual-species biofilms were grown in the root specimens. At the end of 21 days, the samples were divided into five groups and subjected to different types of medicaments: Control group- distilled water; Chlorhexidine group- 2% chlorhexidine gel; Chitosan group- 0.5% chitosan; Mangosteen group- ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp; and Triphala group- ethanol extract of Triphala. Colony-forming units (CFUs) were assessed on the first and fifth day after medicament placement.
Results: Microbial population reduction was measured by one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test (P<0.05). Chlorhexidine showed maximum log reduction in CFUs of microorganisms, followed by chitosan, which showed a similar log reduction (P>0.05) for both mono- and dual-species biofilms. However, in the mangosteen and Triphala extract groups, the CFU/mL for dual-species on both days did not have a significant reduction in count (P<0.05) when compared to chlorhexidine and chitosan.
Conclusion: Chlorhexidine showed maximum antimicrobial activity, followed by chitosan, on both mono- and dual-species biofilms. Mangosteen and Triphala had good antimicrobial action on the mono-species biofilm. (EEJ-2021-07-128)

Keywords: Candida albicans biofilm, chitosan, Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, mangosteen, triphala

Vinoo Subramanaiam Ramachandran, Mensudar Rathakrishnan, Malathy Balaraman Ravindrran, Venkatesh Alagarsamy. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Mangosteen, Triphala, Chitosan, and 2% Chlorhexidine on Mono- and Dual-Species Biofilms of – and Candida albicans: An in Vitro Study. Eur Endod J. 2022; 7(1): 58-66

Corresponding Author: Vinoo Subramanaiam Ramachandran
Manuscript Language: English
LookUs & Online Makale