E-ISSN 2548-0839
Volume : 9 Issue : 2 Year : 2024


5 year Impact Factor
2022 CiteScore
Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate, 2023)(Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine (Science))
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
European Endodontic Journal - Eur Endod J: 9 (2)
Volume: 9  Issue: 2 - 2024
1.Front Matter

Pages I - VI

2.Effect of Intraligamentary Tramadol Hydrochloride on Anesthetic Success During Endodontic Management of Mandibular Molars: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Trial
Vivek Aggarwal, Mamta Singla, Alpa Gupta, Umesh Kumar, Masoud Saatchi
PMID: 38219030  PMCID: PMC10938360  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.48343  Pages 99 - 105
Objective: Tramadol hydrochloride has shown local anesthetic properties similar to lidocaine, apart from a central analgesic effect. The present study evaluated the effect of the administration of tramadol alone or in addition to 2% lidocaine, as supplementary intraligamentary injections.
Methods: One hundred and five patients, with a failed primary inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB), were randomly allocated to one of the three supplementary intraligamentary groups: 2% lidocaine with 1: 80,000 epinephrine; tramadol hydrochloride (50 mg/mL); and 2% lidocaine with 1: 80,000 epinephrine plus tramadol hydrochloride. Patients received 1.2 mL doses (0.6 mL of each root). Patients reporting pain ≤54 on Heft Parker visual analogue scale (Heft-Parker VAS), were categorized as successful anesthesia. A finger pulse oximeter was used to measure the heart rates. The anesthetic success rates, gender, and type of tooth were compared using the Pearson chi-square test. The heart rates and age were statistically evaluated using the one-way analysis of variance test. The level of significance was set at 0.05 (p=0.05).
Results: The initial IANB was successful in 31% of cases. There were significant differences in the anesthetic success rates of different supplementary intraligamentary injections (χ2= 33.6, p<0.001, df=2). The 2% lidocaine-plus-tramadol resulted in significantly higher success rates than the two groups. There were no significant changes in the baseline heart rates of all groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The addition of tramadol to 2% lidocaine with 1: 80,000 epinephrine, given as supplementary intraligamentary injection, can help in achieving successful anesthesia during the endodontic management of mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis resistant to IANB injections. (EEJ-2023-05-064)

3.Cone-beam Computed Tomography Analysis of the Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular Incisors Using Two Classification Systems in a Spanish Subpopulation: A Cross-Sectional Study
Silvia Herrero-hernández, Óliver Valencia De Pablo, Manuel Bravo, Antonio Conde, Roberto Estevez, Yoseif Haddad, Nansi López-valverde, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele
PMID: 38380511  PMCID: PMC10938354  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.10327  Pages 106 - 113
Objective: This study evaluated the root and canal morphology in permanent mandibular incisors teeth using cone-beam computer tomography imaging in a Spanish subpopulation, and compared these findings with ipsilateral (similarity) and contralateral (symmetry) incisors. In addition, the position of canal splitting was measured.
Methods: A total of 229 datasets comprising four mandibular teeth each (n=916 incisors) were analysed using Vertucci and Ahmed et al. classifications, and, the similarity and symmetry were calculated. The distance from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), and the most coronal canal divergence was measured (if present). The role of sex was also assessed. The Cochran Q Test, LOGIS PROC in SUDAAN, Chi-square, and Kappa were used for the different comparisons. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: All incisors were single-rooted and no significant differences regarding root canal morphology were found according to the sex of the subjects included in the database. The most common morphology was Vertucci type I/Ahmed et al. 1MI1(65.3% for central and 66.8% for lateral incisors respectively), followed by type III/1MI1–2–1 (31% for central and 30.6% for lateral incisors). 1.8% of the samples were considered as non-classifiable with Vertucci but were classified with codes using the Ahmed et al. system. Similarity values were 74.7% for the left side, and 74.2% for the right side, whereas symmetry values were 90% for central and 84.3% for lateral incisors. In the presence of divergences, the main (SD) distances from the CEJ were for type II/1MI1–2–1 3.8±0.8 (centrals) 4.0±0.7 mm (laterals); for type V/1MI1–2 this value ranged between 6.0±1.8 and 5.5±1.5 mm, whereas values for 1MI1–2–3–2–1 were 1.8 and 2.1 mm. No significant differences were found when the position of the most coronal divergence was compared between lateral and central incisors for the different morphologies.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of Vertucci I/Ahmed et al. 1MI1 configuration was present in mandibular incisors from Spanish individuals. Similarity and symmetry were common, particularly for central incisors. The position of the coronal splitting of the canals varied according to the root canal morphology. (EEJ-2023-05-070)

4.Shaping Ability of Different Rotary and Reciprocating File Systems in Simulated S-Shaped Root Canals
Okba Mahmoud, Sara Alhimairi, Diana Sultan, Ayah Ali
PMID: 38377107  PMCID: PMC10938361  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.93824  Pages 114 - 123
Objective: This study aimed to examine the shaping ability of six rotary and reciprocating file systems, as well as hybrid techniques in simulated S-shaped root canals.
Methods: A hundred and twenty S-shaped radiopaque thermosetting epoxy resin blocks were grouped according to the system used for biomechanical preparation. Six groups of 15 canals each were prepared using TruNatomy, Procodile, VDW Rotate, Hyflex CM, OneCurve, and WaveOne Gold, respectively. Two additional hybrid (Procodile/Hyflex CM and Procodile/TruNatomy) groups (n=15 each) were added after evaluating the results of individual systems. All canals were enlarged to 0.25 mm apically. Canal transportation, centering ability, diameter increase, and iatrogenic errors were assessed by superimposed pre-operative and post-operative images. AutoCAD was used for data analysis. All groups were statistically compared with analysis of variance and Tukey honest significant difference test (p<0.05).
Results: Hyflex CM resulted in the most conservative diameter increase in all thirds (coronal, middle, and apical; p<0.001). Procodile showed the best (p<0.001) centering ability in the coronal and middle thirds, while TruNatomy resulted in the least canal transportation and most centering preparation in the apical third (p<0.001). Hybridisation of Procodile and Hyflex CM produced the least canal transportation and best centering ability in the middle third (p<0.001). No instrument breakage occurred, and no ledge, elbow, or apical zip formation was observed during canal preparation.
Conclusion: Hybridisation of Procodile and Hyflex CM showed remarkable results in preserving the canal diameter in all thirds and resulted in the least canal transportation and best centering ability in the middle third of the canal. However, when treatment cost and duration limit the clinical applicability of the hybrid technique, clinicians can use a single file system (Hyflex CM or TruNatomy) since it shows satisfactory results in all parameters when compared with a hybrid system. (EEJ-2023-06-083)

5.Influence of Different Glide Path Techniques on Microcrack Formation after Two Different Root Canal Preparation Treatments: Micro Computed Tomography Analysis
Shang Fuad Jamal, Ranjdar Mahmood Talabani
PMID: 38456466  PMCID: PMC10938362  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.20982  Pages 124 - 132
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of WaveOne Glider (WOGG) with Waveone Gold (WOG) primary reciprocation systems on root dentine microcrack formation and to know the effect of TruNatomy Glider (TRNG) with TruNatomy (TRN) prime rotary systems on root dentine microcrack formation.
Methods: In this study, 40 extracted mandibular first molar roots were selected and divided randomly into four groups (n=10). Group MWOG: a manual glide path was performed + WOG primary. Group MTRN: manual glide path performed+TRN prime. Additionally, group WOGG: glide path preparation with WOGG+WOG primary. Finally, for group TRNG, the glide path preparation was performed with TRNG+TRN prime. Micro-CT was used for pre and post-instrumentation image analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal- Wallis test (p<0.05) with Two-way ANOVA.
Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant differences among all groups in all thirds for pre and post-instrumentation regarding the crack formation. The Two-way ANOVA showed no significant difference or interaction between the ways of glide path preparation, whether manual or reciprocal WOGG, or between the rotary TRNG and the motion used in root canal preparation (rotary TRN or reciprocal WOG) regarding the crack formation and propagation.
Conclusion: Microcrack formation and propagation occurred independently of using different glide path techniques (manual, rotary, or reciprocal). (EEJ-2023-09-125)

6.Impact of Angle of File Access and Location of Canal Curvature on the Dynamic Cyclic Fatigue of Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments
Dina Assaf, Mohammed Abou El Seoud, Mohammed Kataia, Shehabeldin Saber
PMID: 38268112  PMCID: PMC10938357  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.71676  Pages 133 - 138
Objective: To evaluate the impact of different file access angles and root canal curvature’s location on the fatigue failure of One Curve (OC) and E3 Azure (EZ) NiTi files using a dynamic model at simulated body temperature.
Methods: Eighty new instruments with similar tip sizes and taper (#25/0.06) from two NiTi rotary systems, One Curve and E3 Azure, were tested at simulated body temperatures (37°C) using a custom-made dynamic cyclic fatigue device. Instruments were divided into four subgroups according to the location of root canal curvature (a coronal curve 5 mm from the root canal orifice and an apical curve 10 mm from the root canal orifice) and the angle of file access (0° or 30°). Instruments were operated in simulated stainless-steel canals having a 60° curve and a 3 mm radius. A custom-made device produced controlled vertical pecks during file rotation. Time to failure (sec) was registered, and the length of the fragment segments was measured (mm). Data were analysed statistically with One-Way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. The significance level was set at 5%. All separated instruments were examined by scanning electron microscope.
Results: One-way ANOVA (p<0.05) found a significant difference among the tested instruments. Post Hoc analysis revealed lower cyclic fatigue resistance when the angle of file access was 30º, and the root canal curvature was located coronally for both files (p<0.0001). Three-way ANOVA showed that the angle of file access was the most influential contributor to cyclic fatigue, followed by the location of file curvature and, finally, the file type (p<0.0001). The fractographic examination revealed a predominantly ductile fracture mode for all tested instruments. The lengths of all fractured segments showed no significant difference (p>0.05), indicating an accurate trajectory during testing.
Conclusion: OC files had superior cyclic fatigue resistance than EZ files; coronal curvatures negatively impacted cyclic fatigue resistance compared to apical curvatures, while the angle of file access presented the highest impact on dynamic cyclic fatigue. (EEJ-2023-08-109)

7.Effectiveness of Triton Irrigation Solution in Smear Layer Removal: An in-vitro Study
Huda Wakas Oraim, Iman Mohammed Al-Zaka
PMID: 38219031  PMCID: PMC10938358  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.58070  Pages 139 - 145
Objective: This in vitro study aimed to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions, including Triton, 0.5% Chitosan nanoparticles (CNP), and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), on the smear layer removal of the root canal walls.
Methods: Forty extracted sound mandibular premolars were examined; the samples were decoronated to obtain a root length of 14 mm. Each sample was instrumented using ProTaper Next rotary file X4 (40/0.06). The samples were longitudinally sectioned and examined under a scanning electron microscope at 3000x magnification in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds using a four-level scoring system.
Results: Triton demonstrated the lowest mean smear layer removal (p>0.05) compared to the other irrigation solutions at all the levels of the root canal. No significant differences were observed (p>0.05) at the coronal and middle levels of the root canal between the CNP and EDTA groups. CNP demonstrated significantly more smear layer removal at the apical level compared to EDTA.
Conclusion: Smear layer removal was least effective with Triton at all the levels of the root canal compared to the other irrigation solutions tested in this study. CNP demonstrated superior smear layer removal at the apical level compared to the other irrigation solutions. (EEJ-2023-11-154)

8.Assessment of the Effect of Different Irrigation Protocols on the Penetration of Irrigation Solution into Simulated Lateral Canals (In Vitro Study)
Ahmed Qasim Talib, Hussain F. Al-Huwaizi
PMID: 38219029  PMCID: PMC10938356  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.29494  Pages 146 - 153
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of lateral canal irrigation penetration by conventional needle, passive ultrasonic, sonic endo activator, and Erbium laser (2780nm).
Methods: A total of 40 palatal roots of human maxillary first molars were collected and instrumented at a working length of 12 mm by an X1-X4 rotary Protaper Next system (Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) using the crown-down technique. Artificial lateral canals were made at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the apex on mesial and distal sides using an ISO rotary reamer (Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland; #10 for mesial, #08 for distal). The samples were then cleared using methyl salicylate. A solution of black ink and normal saline was used as an irrigant for the root canal. The percentages of the penetration of the ink into the lateral canals were measured using a stereomicroscope (Q-Scope, Arnhem, The Netherlands) with the aid of program Image J. The Tukey test is used to assess the significant difference between intragroup and intergroup comparisons of different thirds, and the T-test is used to assess the significant difference between every two groups and for the mesial and distal sides of each group. The level of significance was set at 0.05.
Results: Results showed that none of the activation techniques used resulted in complete lateral canal penetrations; however, on both sides at all thirds, the Erbium laser (2780 nm) achieved the highest results with a highly significant statistical difference (p=0.05) with all other groups, and the least penetration was in the conventional needle group.
Conclusion: The size of the lateral canal is a restricting factor for all activation methods; the best results can be achieved by laser. Conventional needles cannot be used alone to disinfect complex canal anatomy; however, passive ultrasonic and sonic endo activator activations can produce comparable results. (EEJ-2022-11-132)

9.Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Triple Antibiotic-Loaded Hydrogel Versus Modified Triple Antibiotic-Loaded Hydrogel as Intracanal Medicament Against Enterococcus faecalis: An In vitro Study
Annie Sylvea Valan, Sankeerthana Kolli, Rajalakshmanan Eswaramoorthy, Jogikalmat Krithikadatta, Nivedhitha Malli Sureshbabu
PMID: 38456465  PMCID: PMC10938355  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.06977  Pages 154 - 160
Objective: Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) is known to have an essential role in the success of endodontic treatment by eliminating pathogens from the root canal system. Unfortunately, it causes discolouration and cytotoxicity at high concentrations. The objective of this research was to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of various concentrations (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg) of TAP, TAP hydrogel (TAPH), M-TAP, and M-TAP hydrogel (MTAPH) against Enterococcus faecalis.
Methods: The agar well diffusion method was used to assess the antibiotic sensitivity of the following intracanal medicaments: TAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline) mixed in a ratio of 1: 1: 1; TAPH, M-TAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin), M-TAPH and plain hydrogel. Each tested medicament was individually evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. Structural and topographical characterisation were analysed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and interpreted using ImageJ software. A microdilution broth test was performed to examine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of M-TAP and TAP.
Results: Except for the plain hydrogel, M-TAP and hydrogel and TAP and hydrogel showed significantly varied inhibitory zones at different concentrations. M-TAPH showed the highest mean zone of inhibition of 21.6, 33.33 and 38.0 mm at a concentration of 1, 5, and 10 mg/mL when compared to TAPH, which showed a mean zone of inhibition of 3.3 mm,12.3 mm, 21.3 mm at the respective concentrations. The MIC study shows that more than 75% of Enterococcus faecalis growth was inhibited by M-TAP at a concentration of 5 μg/mL, whereas TAP showed inhibition at a concentration of 35 μg/mL. MBC results indicate that almost 99.9% of the bacterial population was killed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL (10–1) for TAP and 10 μg/mL (10–2) for M-TAP.
Conclusion: The antibacterial efficacy of M-TAP was significantly higher than TAP. Application of M-TAP at lower doses is advised to overcome the disadvantages seen with TAP. (EEJ-2023-07-088)

10.Bactericidal Effect of Triple Antibiotic Paste against Enterococcus faecalis in Dentinal Tubules: An Ex Vivo Study
Athiphum Thasanakit, Jittranan Kaewprag, Ratchapin Srisatjaluk
PMID: 38456464  PMCID: PMC10938359  doi: 10.14744/eej.2023.78942  Pages 161 - 166
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the bactericidal effect of various concentrations of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in dentinal tubules using a bacterial culture assay and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM).
Methods: Ninety human teeth were contaminated with E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and randomly allocated into 5 groups; the negative control (without TAP), 1 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, 7.5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml TAP (n=18). After a 3-week TAP treatment, samples were collected from the root canal space, root dentin at 100-μm and 200-μm depth. The collected samples were subjected to a bacterial culture assay (n=10). Eight roots from each group underwent CLSM analysis to determine the live/dead bacterial cells.
Results: The bacterial culture assay results indicated that the negative control samples were all culturable. The number of culture-positive samples decreased after TAP treatment at 1, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/ml, with 2, 2, 1 and 0 culturable samples, respectively. However, there was no significant difference among the TAP treatments. Surprisingly, the CLSM analysis demonstrated live bacteria in the dentinal tubules in all samples. The negative control had 52.36%±3.24 live bacteria. TAP treatment at 10 mg/ml had the lowest percentage of live bacterial cells (40.58%±5.40), followed by 7.5 mg/ml (44.14%±6.03), 5 mg/ml (46.31%±5.32) and 1 mg/ml (52.55%±8.82). The percentage of live cells in the 10 mg/ml, 7.5 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml TAP groups were significantly lower than the 1 mg/ml TAP and negative control groups.
Conclusion: TAP treatment significantly decreased the percentage of viable E. faecalis cells in the dentinal tubules and its bactericidal effect was dose-dependent. (EEJ-2023-05-068)

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