Objective: To explore the long-term effects on discolouration by demeclocycline HCl (Ledermix, LED) or doxycycline hyclate (Doxymix, DOX) pastes placed in extracted human teeth over a 27-month period under different storage conditions.
Methods: The canals in 38 teeth were prepared carefully, to minimize exposure to contamination from irrigants, then either LED (Lederle Pharmaceuticals, Germany) or DOX (Ozdent, Australia) were placed. Samples were stored in the dark for 3 months followed by daylight for 24 months. The storage conditions varied as follows: Group 1: Open access, dry storage (OD); Group 2: Closed access, dry storage (CD); Group 3: Open access, wet storage (OW); Group 4: Closed access, wet storage (n=4 for each material). Additional teeth were used as controls: Polyethylene glycol only in a closed canal; and saline only irrigation with LED paste in a closed canal. Standardised digital photographs were taken over 27 months and evaluated for changes in luminosity.
Results: Darkening of tooth structure occurred in all LED groups and in the two DOX groups that were stored wet, during exposure to light, with a faster rate with LED. The most rapid staining occurred with LED in moist conditions with an open access cavity. The least staining occurred with DOX in samples stored dry. With prolonged exposure to light, a reversal in staining occurred with DOX at 3 months and LED at 9 months.
Conclusion: Staining of tooth structure is influenced by the choice of medicament, and by exposure to moisture and air. Light has a bimodal effect, first driving staining, but later reversing it. This can be explained by different wavelengths of light causing photodegradation and photo-oxidation of tetracyclines and their complexes with tooth mineral. (EEJ-2022-03-039)