Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of different irrigants and irrigation proto- cols in the removal of gutta-percha and sealer from simulated un-instrumented areas.
Methods: Eighty-four uniradicular teeth were used. After standardizing working length (WL) and preparing the glide path, coronal flaring was performed. The instrumentation phase was completed with ProFile rotary instruments up to size #35 LightSpeed LSX. Roots were split into halves: in one of them, a groove was pre- pared in the apical 6 mm. In the opposite one, 5 depressions were made (at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm). Irregularities were filled with AH Plus sealer and flowable gutta-percha. The Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chloroform in removal of material and the effect of positive pressure (PP), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) (one or three cycles) and paper points were analysed with the chi-square test.
Results: Delivery by PP did not eliminate the obturator material from any artificial depression. Chloroform, when activated, demonstrated a significant linear trend in the amount of gutta-percha removed at all tested levels (P<0.01). The use of paper points after passive delivery of chloroform increased significantly the remov- al of gutta-percha in the groove and at 4 and 10 mm (P<0.05). Three cycles of PUI and chloroform showed significantly fewer remnants of gutta-percha (P<0.01).
Conclusion: Positive pressure was not effective in the removal of obturator materials with any of the tested irrigants. Chloroform delivered by PP in combination with paper points obtained a better cleaning efficacy, although its activation using PUI for three cycles of 20 s showed the best cleanliness.