E-ISSN 2548-0839
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in chronic apical periodontitis []
. Ahead of Print: EEJ-46330 | DOI: 10.14744/eej.2018.46330

Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in chronic apical periodontitis

Ronan Jacques Rezende Delgado1, Claudia Ramos Pinheiro1, Thaís Helena Gasparoto1, Carla Renata Sipert2, Ivaldo Gomes De Moraes3, Roberto Brandão Garcia3, Clóvis Monteiro Bramante3, Norberti Bernardineli3, Celso Kenji Nishiyama4, João Santana Da Silva5, Sérgio Aparecido Torres1, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet1, Ana Paula Campanelli1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil
2Department of Restorative Dentistry, Discipline of Endodontics, Dental School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Department of Operative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental Materials, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil
4Endodontics Division, Scientific Coordinator of Endodontics Specialty, Dentistry Postgraduate Center, CPO Uningá, Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil
5Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto – University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Objective: To examine PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on leukocytes from chronic apical periodontitis, and determine the levels of cytokines in apical periodontitis lesions.
Methodology: Leukocytes from healthy gingival tissue (n=16) and chronic apical periodontitis (n=10) were evaluated by flow cytometry. PD-1 and PDL-1 expression were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cytokines levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and the statistical significance level was set at P<0.05.
Results: Results showed that apical periodontitis lesions are more infiltrated by PD-1+ and PDL1+ lymphocytes than control samples. In addition, PDL-1 expression was detected on macrophages in apical periodontitis lesions and was significantly higher than in leukocytes from healthy gingival tissue. IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-10, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the apical periodontitis lesions than in control samples.
Conclusion: PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 molecules are detected in apical periodontitis lesions and support the idea that these costimulatory molecules may be an important immune checkpoint in chronic periapical periodontitis.

Keywords: chronic periapical periodontitis, PD-1, PDL-1, cytokines, lymphocytes



Corresponding Author: Ana Paula Campanelli

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